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What article

Auschwitz Concentration Camp was the place of one of the most terrible genocide in the history of mankind, which everyone should know about.

I’m sure you will agree with this…

By reading this article you will gain elementary knowledge about the holocaust and Auschwitz.

What for

It can help you to better understand what you will see by visiting Auschwitz.

You will also learn what human nature is capable of, in terms of ruthlessness and courage.

Follow this post and get to know the real story.

Auschwitz Concentration Camp

Painful Word Holocaust

Basically, holocaust is a genocide of Jews during World War II.

It was a main part of Nazi’s racist and anti-Semitic program.

What was the purpose

Providing for the isolation of the Jewish population and the gradual deprivation of all civil rights.

Jew Killings in Ivangorod

The first repressions started with discrimination, followed by separation and arrival to concentration camp.

But it wasn’t enough for them

Their aim was the “Final Solution”, which meant the murder all the Jews and total destruction of their culture.

Effects

During the World War II around 6 millions Jews died or were killed which was half of their population.

And not only Jews

In a broader sense holocaust concerns Jews and millions other victims murdered in German Nazi death camps like Auschwitz Concentration Camp.

Auschwitz Concentration Camp

What exactly Auschwitz Concentation Camp was

You have to know, that the idea of concentration camps wasn’t invented by Germans.

Actually, the term “concentration” has its origins in camps set up in Cuba in 1897.

But they used this idea in much more brutal way.

It all started a few years before The World War II, when Adolf Hitler became a Chancellor and gained control of the German policy.

As the Second World War started, the German Nazi invasion of Poland needed camps to place all prisoners.

This is why, German Nazi decided to build more camps on invaded territories.

Main Gate of Auschwitz

Where exaclty

Concentration Camps Auschwitz is in the Province of Upper Silesia in southern polish territory incorporated by Third Reich.

Auschwitz Location in Europe

Why there

German Nazi were aware that it was important to choose the adequate location to hold so many prisoners in one place and conduct mass extermination.

This was the reason why Auschwitz site was in the middle of Europe.

If you want to know more about it’s location, read this article.

Fence of auschwitz today

The purpose of the camps expanded from forced labour and detention of enemies of the state to mass murders.

Finally this Nazi Concentration Camp became the final destination for over 1 million inmates.

Auschwitz Birkenau Camps

What actually happened in Auschwitz

There is no doubt that Auschwitz Concentration Camp was the worst concentration and extermination camp.

Auschwitz-Birkenau consisted of 300 different buildings, including barracks and gas chambers with crematoria.

Above all, it was a death camp.

Auschwitz Concentration Camp

What does it mean

The prisoners were transported there for:

  • hard work (also ending with death)
  • cruel medical experiments
  • sudden death

All of the scenarios were sadistic.

Warning sign in Auschwitz

Hard work in Auschwitz Concentration Camp

After the transport of new prisoners arrived, soldiers selected them into two groups. The ones that were able to work were admitted to camp and assigned to forced labour.

Prisoners Transport

What happened to them first

German soldiers dehumanized them by:

  • completely cutting off their hair
  • taking away all their clothes and belongings
  • giving them striped prison uniforms and a pair of shoes instead
  • registering them and tattooing with a serial number.

    Auschwitz Gate Arbeit Macht Frei

The prisoners slept together in barracks, usually with three inmates per wooden bunk. The bucket replaced the toilet and the cold shower was once a week.

The prisoners were deprived of space, food (700 kcal per day), sleep and medical attention. They had to work over strength.

If you want to know how the day in Auschwitz looked like, watch this movie:

Some prisoners left in the camp, some composed Sonderkommando units (responsible for the corpses), but most of the prisoners worked hard outside in:

  • factories
  • building projects
  • colliery
  • or ranches

All belonging to German companies.

Sonderkommando at work

Inhuman experiments in Auschwitz

Some prisoners were chosen by doctors and the experiments were conducted on them.

What kind of

Among many doctors of Auschwitz the most notorious were Dr. Carl Clauberg and Dr. J. Mengele.

  • Clauberg focused on women sterilization with x-rays and injection of various substances into women’s uteri.
  • Mengele especially searched for identical twins to find a way to clone a perfect Aryan.

Victims of experiments

Immediate death in Auschwitz Gas Chambers

The last group of arrivals: too weak to work, children, women with small children and elderly were murdered immediately in gas chambers.

The holocaust gas chambers were disguised as shower facilities, sometimes even with soap and towels. That’s why they took all clothes off and entered the chamber without hesitation.

Auschwitz Gas Chamber

What happened after

The doors were locked and pellets of Zyklon B was dumped in.

Despite the thick walls, the screaming and moaning were heard outside for a long minutes.

After the extermination the Sonderkommando wearing the gas masks dragged out the bodies and burned them in crematoriums.

Can with zyklon B

How many there were

Crematorium I operated until July 1942. About 60 000 prisoners were murdered in that particular place.

Crematoria II, III, IV and V were successively built and used for corps disposal.

Chimneys in Auschwitz

A lot, right

In summer even 20 000 prisoners were killed per day.

The ashes of the victims were buried, thrown in the river or used as fertilizer.

Before Auschwitz liberation, Himmler ordered to cease gassing and destroy crematoria. Sonderkommando was forced to remove the evidence of killing, like mass graves.

Auschwitz Concentration Camp

Auschwitz Liberation

In mid-1944 there were 130 000 prisoners in Auschwitz Concentration Camp. Half of them were supposed to move as the Soviet Red Army was approaching Poland.

The final evacuation of Auschwitz started in January 1945. On 17th January 1945 about 56 000-58 000 prisoners started the death march toward Wodzisław Śląski.

What did this march look like

Severe winter, exhaustion and starvation made thousands of people died during the walk. Prisoners too slow or too weak to walk were shot immediately.

Auschwitz Concentration Camp

In 27th January Red Army liberate Auschwitz Concentration Camp. Soviets found 7500 prisoners and 600 corpses.

What else did they found

370000 men’s suite, 837000 women’s garments and 7.7 tons of human hair.

Lorries with bread arrived the next day. Volunteers offered first aid and assistance. Hospital cared for 4500 patients suffering from:

  • starvation
  • alimentary dystrophy
  • gangrene
  • necrosis
  • internal haemorrhaging
  • typhoid fever

About 500 of liberate prisoners died.

Auschwitz Prisoners

How many people died in Auschwitz

The method of the disposal of the dead bodies in Auschwitz make it almost impossible to calculate.

Moreover, many of prisoners were never registered and thousands of them never got to the camp, dying during transportation.

Furthermore, when Red Army was about to approach Poland, Himmler gave the order to burn all the files.

It all makes it difficult to calculate how many people died in Auschwitz Concentration Camp.

Auschwitz Museum

There are many theories on this subject:

  • The Soviet government claimed that around 4 millions people were killed on the site.
  • According to Höss testimony 2.5 million Jews were killed in gas chambers and 0.5 million died of other causes.
  • A French Scholar George Wellers used German data on deportation and estimated a figure of 1 471 595 deaths, including 1.35 million Jews and 86 675 Poles.
  • According to polish historian, Franciszek Piper’s study 1.1 million people died or were killed in Auschwitz, including 960 000 Jews. He combined timetables of train arrivals with deportation records.

Wall of block in Auschwitz

The tables below will show you the proportions of victims nationality:

NationatiltyNumber of dead
Jews960 000
Poles75 000
Romani21 000
Soviets15 000
Otherup to 15 000
NationalityNumber of prisoners
Jews1 100 000
Poles150 000
Romani23 000
Otherover 30 000

Auschwitz’s survivor

Holocaust Memorial Day

Holocaust Memorial Day refers to an annual day designated to honour the victims, survivors and rescuers of the Holocaust.

Different countries chose various dates. Most of them chose the anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz concentration camp by the Soviet Union in 1945 (27th January).

If you want to check when this holiday is taking place in your country, you will find a table with dates at the bottom of this page.

Auschwitz Concentration Camp today

The post-camp relics are protected by the Museum created in 1947.

The buildings and crematoria destroyed before liberation were rebuilt with original material.

Auschwitz Concentration Camp today

The Museum was named the World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Over million people visits Auschwitz every day.

If you want to see it virtually, visit this site:

What Auschwitz Looks Like Today Photos and Video Virtual Tour.

You are probably wondering:

Can you visit Auschwitz Concentration Camp personally

Of course!

But remember:

  • Admission to the grounds of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum is free of charge but we suggest you to hire an educator.
  • During the visit hours the grounds and buildings of the Auschwitz Concentration Camp I and Auschwitz II-Birkenau camps are open to visitors.
  • While on the grounds of the Museum observe the appropriate solemnity and respect.

It’s good to book your visit earlier due many visitors, so we recommend you to buy an organised trip to Auschwitz Flash Decompiler Trillix 5.3

You can also see aerial view of Auschwitz below:

Holocaust Memorial Day dates:

Chosen dateCountry
27th JanuaryEuropean Union, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Italy, Sweden, United Kingdom,
United Nations (International Holocaust Remembrance Day – commemorating the tragedy of the Holocaust that occurred during the Second World War)
5th MayAustria
10th MarchBulgaria
16th JulyFrance
4th MayNetherlands
19th AprilPoland
9th OctoberRomania
22nd AprilSerbia
27th Nisan (april/may)Israel, (and many Jewish communities in other countries), Canada
8-day period, from the Sunday before Yom Hashoah to the Sunday after Yom HashoahUSA

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Arduino IDE для ESP8266 позволяет писать скетчи и загружать их одним кликом в ESP8266 в знакомой среде (я бы даже сказал «до боли знакомой») Arduino IDE. Для тех кому интерфейс Arduino IDE не очень по душе, есть поддержка плагина для Eclipse. Итак, обо всем по порядку. Самые нетерпеливые могут сразу перейти к Arduino IDE для ESP8266: быстрый старт

Arduino IDE для ESP8266 позволяет создавать прошивки и прошивать их в ESP8266 точно так же, как вы это делаете с Arduino. При этом никаких плат Arduino не требуется, это не тот случай, когда ESP8266 используется в качестве WiFi шилда для Arduino. Кроме того, вы можете использовать практически все Arduino библиотеки с ESP8266 после небольшой доработки. В настоящее время уже достаточно много библиотек адаптировано для использования с ESP8266, но о них чуть ниже.

Arduino IDE для ESP8266 поддерживает все существующие на сегодняшний день модули ESP8266 (потому что они особо и не отличаются), включая модули с флеш бОльшего, чем 512k объема. Поддерживаются модули NodeMCU (всех версий), Olimex-MOD-WiFi-ESP8266.

Поддерживается режим авторестарта и прошивки по RTS DTR, как у обычной Arduino, для этого потребуется USB-TTL адаптер с разведенными пинами DTR и RTS. Если у вас только RX, TX и GND на USB-TTL, то придется по-старинке вручную притягивать к земле GPIO0 и передергивать питание модуля для прошивки.

Arduino IDE для ESP8266: краткий обзор реализованных в настоящее время функций

Базовые функции языка Wiring

Управление GPIO осуществляется точно также, как и управление pin для arduino: pinMode, digitalRead, digitalWrite,   analogWrite функционируют как обычно. GPIO нумеруются так, как мы уже привыкли: для чтения состояния GPIO2 нужно использовать команду digitalRead(2)

GPIO0-GPIO15 могут быть INPUT, OUTPUT, INPUT_PULLUP, и INPUT_PULLDOWN. GPIO16 может быть только INPUT, OUTPUT или INPUT_PULLDOWN. Команда analogRead(A0) считывает значение ADC (АЦП) с TOUT.

Команда analogWrite(pin, value) включает программный PWM (ШИМ) на указанном GPIO. Команда analogWrite(pin, 0) отключает PWM. value может быть в диапазоне от 0 до PWMRANGE. Константа PWMRANGE в настоящее время равна 1023.

Поддержка прерываний обеспечивается функциями attachInterrupt, detachInterrupt. Прерывания могут быть назначены на любой GPIO, кроме GPIO16. Стандартные прерывания Arduino CHANGE, RISING, FALLING тоже поддерживаются.

ESP8266 — функции пинов

Тайминг и delay

Функции millis и micros возвращают миллисекунды и микросекунды соответственно, прошедшие с момента старта модуля. Любимая многими функция delay также присутствует и приостанавливает выполнение скетча на указанное время в миллисекундах и позволяет отработать операциям WiFi и TCP/IP. Функция delayMicroseconds используется аналогично, только время задается в микросекундах.

Помните о том, что когда модуль поддерживает WiFi соединение, ему приходится выполнять множество фоновых задач, кроме вашего скетча. WiFi и TCP/IP функции библиотек SDK имеют возможность обработать все события в очереди после завершения каждого цикла вашей функции loop() или во время выполнения delay(...). Если в вашем коде есть фрагменты, которые выполняются более 50 миллисекунд, то необходимо использовать  delay(...) для сохранения нормальной работоспособности стека WiFi.

Также вы можете использовать функцию yield(), которая эквивалентна delay(0). С другой стороны, функция delayMicroseconds блокирует выполнение других задач, поэтому ее использование для временных задержек свыше 20 миллисекунд не рекомендуется.

Последовательные порты Serial и Serial1 (UART0 и UART1)

Объект Serial работает точно также, как и с Arduino. Помимо аппаратного FIFO (по 128 байт для приема и передачи) определен и программный буфер размером по 256 байт для приема и передачи данных. Прием и передача данных происходит по прерываниям, прозрачно для вашего скетча. Функции записи и чтения блокируют выполнение скетча только когда аппаратный FIFO и программный буфер переполняются.

Serial использует аппаратный UART0, работающий на GPIO1(TX) и GPIO3(RX). Эти пины могут быть переназначены на GPIO15 (TX) и GPIO13 (RX) вызовом функции Serial.swap(); после Serial.begin();. Повторный вызов Serial.swap(); вернет все на свои места.

Serial1 использует аппаратный UART1, работающий только на передачу. UART1 TX это GPIO2. Для включения Serial1 используйте Serial1.begin();

По умолчанию, отладочная информация библиотек WiFi выключается, когда вы вызываете функцию Serial.begin();. Для включения отладочной информации на UART0 используйте Serial.setDebugOutput(true); Для перенаправления вывода отладочной информации на UART1 используйте команду Serial1.setDebugOutput(true);

И Serial и Serial1 поддерживают 5, 6, 7, 8 бит данных, odd (O), even (E), и no (N) режимы четности, и 1 или 2 стоп бита. Для выбора нужного режима вызывайте Serial.begin(baudrate, SERIAL_8N1); или Serial.begin(baudrate, SERIAL_6E2); и т.д.

PROGMEM

Макрос PROGMEM работает точно также, как в Arduino, помещая read only данные и строковые константы (литералы) во флеш память, высвобождая HEAP. Важное отличие состоит в том, что в ESP8266 одинаковые литералы не хранятся в одном месте, поэтому использование строковых констант внутри конструкций F("") и/или PSTR("") приводит к расходованию флеш памяти при каждом вызове этих функций. Вы должны самостоятельно управлять одинаковыми строками для экономичного расходования места во флеш памяти.

Библиотека WiFi ESP8266 (ESP8266WiFi)

Функции библиотеки WiFi ESP8266 очень схожи с функциями библиотеки для обычного WiFi шилда.

Список отличий:

  • WiFi.mode(m): выбрать режим WIFI_AP (точка доступа), WIFI_STA (клиент), или WIFI_AP_STA (оба режима одновременно).
  • WiFi.softAP(ssid) создает открытую точку доступа
  • WiFi.softAP(ssid, password) создает точку доступа с WPA2-PSK шифрованием, пароль должен быть не менее 8 символов
  • WiFi.macAddress(mac) позволяет получить MAC адрес в режиме клиента
  • WiFi.softAPmacAddress(mac) позволяет получить MAC адрес в режиме точки доступа
  • WiFi.localIP() позволяет получить IP адрес в режиме клиента
  • WiFi.softAPIP() позволяет получить IP адрес в режиме точки доступа
  • WiFi.RSSI() пока не реализована
  • WiFi.printDiag(Serial); выводит диагностическую информацию
  • Класс WiFiUDP поддерживает прием и передачу multicast пакетов в режиме клиента. Для передачи multicast пакета используйте вместо udp.beginPacket(addr, port) функцию udp.beginPacketMulticast(addr, port, WiFi.localIP()). Когда вы ожидаете multicast пакеты, используйте вместо udp.begin(port) функцию udp.beginMulticast(WiFi.localIP(), multicast_ip_addr, port). Вы можете использовать udp.destinationIP() для определения того, был ли пакет отправлен на multicast адрес или предназначался именно вам. Multicast функции не поддерживаются в режиме точки доступа.

WiFiServer, WiFiClient, и WiFiUDP работаю точно так же, как и с библиотекой обычного WiFi шилда. Четыре примера идет в комплекте с этой библиотекой.

Тикер

Библиотека Ticker может быть использована для выполнения периодически повторяющихся событий через определенное время. Два примера включено в поставку.

В настоящее время не рекомендуется блокировать операции ввода-вывода (сеть, последовательный порт, файловые операции) в callback функциях тикера. Вместо блокирования устанавливайте флаг в callback функциях и проверяйте этот флаг в основном цикле.

EEPROM

Эта библиотека немного отличается от стандартной Arduino EEPROM. Необходимо вызвать функцию EEPROM.begin(size) каждый раз перед началом чтения или записи, размер (указывается в байтах) соответствует размеру данных, которые вы намереваетесь использовать в EEPROM. Размер данных должен быть в диапазоне от 4 до 4096 байт.

Функция EEPROM.write не производит запись данных во флеш память немедленно, вы должны использовать функцию EEPROM.commit() каждый раз, когда вы хотите сохранить данные в память. Функция EEPROM.end() тоже производит запись данных, а также освобождает оперативную память от данных, запись которых произведена. Библиотека EEPROM использует один сектор во флеш памяти, начиная с адреса 0x7b000 для хранения данных. В поставку включено три примера работы с EEPROM.

I2C (Библиотека Wire)

Реализован только режим ведущего, частота ориентировочно до 450 кГц. Перед использованием шины I2C, нужно выбрать пины SDA и SCL путем вызова функции Wire.pins(int sda, int scl), например Wire.pins(0, 2) для модуля ESP-01. Для других модулей пины по умолчанию 4(SDA) и 5(SCL).

SPI

Библиотека SPI поддерживает весь Arduino SPI API, включая транзакции, в том числе фазу синхронизации (CPHA). Clock polarity (CPOL) пока не поддерживается (SPI_MODE2 и SPI_MODE3 не работают).

ESP8266 API

Поддержка функций, специфичных для ESP8266 (режим глубокого сна и сторожевой таймер), реализована в объекте ESP. Функция ESP.deepSleep(microseconds, mode) переводит модуль в режим глубокого сна. Параметр mode может принимать значения: WAKE_DEFAULT, WAKE_RFCAL, WAKE_NO_RFCAL, WAKE_RF_DISABLED. GPIO16 должен быть соединен с RESET для выхода из режима глубокого сна.

Функции ESP.wdtEnable(), ESP.wdtDisable(), и ESP.wdtFeed() управляют сторожевым таймером.

ESP.reset() перезагружает модульESP.getFreeHeap() возвращает размер свободной памятиESP.getFreeHeap() возвращает размер свободной памятиESP.getChipId() возвращает ESP8266 chip IDE, int 32bitESP.getFlashChipId() возвращает flash chip ID, int 32bitESP.getFlashChipSize() возвращает размер флеш памяти в байтах, так, как его определяет SDK (может быть меньше реального размера).ESP.getFlashChipSpeed(void) возвращает частоту флеш памяти, в Гц.ESP.getCycleCount() возвращает количество циклов CPU с момента старта, unsigned 32-bit. Может быть полезна для точного тайминга очень коротких операций

Библиотека OneWire

Библиотека OneWire была адаптирована для ESP8266 (внесены изменения в OneWire.h) Если у вас установлена библиотека OneWire в папку Arduino/libraries, то будет использоваться именно она, а не из комплекта поставки.

mDNS библиотека ESP8266mDNS

Библиотека позволяет реализовать в вашей программе ответ на мультикастовые DNS запросы для локальной зоны, например «esp8266.local». В настоящее время поддерживается только одна зона. Позволяет обращаться к WEB серверу ESP8266 по имени, а не только по IP адресу. Дополнительную информацию вы можете найти в прилагаемом примере и в файле readme данной библиотеки.

Библиотека Servo

Библиотека позволяет управлять сервомоторами. Поддерживает до 24 сервоприводов на любых доступных GPIO. По умолчанию первые 12 сервоприводов будут использовать Timer0 и будут независимы от любых других процессов. Следующие 12 сервоприводов будут использовать Timer1 и будут разделять ресурсы с другими функциями, использующими Timer1. Большинство сервоприводов будут работать с управляющим сигналом ESP8266 3,3в, но не смогут работать на напряжении 3,3в и потребуют отдельный источник питания. Не забудьте соединить общий провод GND этого источника с GND ESP8266

Другие библиотеки, не включенные в поставку Arduino IDE

Почти все библиотеки, которые не используют низкоуровневый доступ к регистрам микропроцессора AVR должны работать без каких-либо доработок. На сегодняшний день можно точно сказать, что протестированы и полностью работоспособны следующие библиотеки:

  • arduinoWebSockets — WebSocket сервер и клиент для esp8266 (RFC6455)
  • aREST REST API handler библиотека, позволяет управлять GPIO через http запросы вида http://192.168.1.101/digital/6/1
  • Blynk — легкий в освоении IoT фреймворк (страница на Kickstarter). Статья на нашем сайте об этой библиотеке и мобильном приложении ESP8266 – Управляем со смартфона через Blynk
  • DallasTemperature DS18B20, DS1820, DS18S20, DS1822
  • DHT11 — используйте для инициализации следующие параметры DHT dht(DHTPIN, DHTTYPE, 15)
  • NeoPixelBus — Arduino NeoPixel библиотека для esp8266
  • PubSubClient Библиотека MQTT by @Imroy. Статья на нашем сайте об этой библиотеке ESP8266 подключаемся к OpenWRT Mosquitto mqttwarn и передаем данные на ThingSpeak, EMAIL, Android, iOS, Twitter, CloudMQTT в 100 строчек кода в Arduino IDE
  • RTC — библиотека for Ds1307 Ds3231 для esp8266
  • Souliss, Smart Home — фреймворк для Умного Дома, построенный на Arduino, Android и OpenHAB

Установка Arduino IDE через Boards Manager

  1. Установите Arduino IDE с официального сайта Arduino.cc
  2. Запустить Arduino IDE, далее Файл — Настройки — в поле Additional Boards Manager URLs вставить ссылку на стабильную версию http://arduino.esp8266.com/package_esp8266com_index.jsonили для nightly build http://arduino.esp8266.com/staging/package_esp8266com_index.json, нажать OK (В это поле вы можете вводить несколько ссылок, разделенных запятой)
  3. Инструменты — Плата — Boards Manager
  4. В Boards Manager в поле фильтра введите esp8266 или вручную пролистайте список и кликните на ESP8266 by ESP8266 Community Forum
  5. Кликните Install и дождитесь окончания загрузки (около 130 Мегабайт). Если загрузка произошла слишком быстро, возможно, что вы уже устанавливали Arduino IDE для ESP8266 и потребуется почистить кэш Boards Manager, иначе у вас останется установленной старая версия. Нужно сначала деинсталлировать старую версию, а потом необходимо удалить файлы кэша. Для Win7 x64 удалите файлы из папки C:\Users\Пользователь\AppData\Roaming\Arduino15 и повторите все, начиная с п.2
  6. Закройте Boards Manager и в меню Инструменты выберите Плата — Generic ESP8266
  7. Установите частоту вашего модуля 80 или 160Mhz, размер флеш памяти и выберите последовательный порт, к которому подключен ваш USB-TTL адаптер

Схема подключения ESP8266

Оптимальное подключение ESP8266 для Arduino IDE

Оптимальное подключение ESP8266

Подключение ESP8266ПримечаниеUSB-TTL
VCCESP8266 подключайте к внешнему источнику питания >300мА, 3,3V
GNDвсе контакты GND должны быть соединены вместе: ESP8266, USB-TTL и источника питанияGND
TX (UTXD)RX
RX (URXD)TX
GPIO0подтягивающий к питанию резистор 10kDTR (если на вашем USB-TTL не разведен пин DTR, то вам придется вручную переключать GPIO0 на землю для перевода ESP8266 в режим прошивки)
RESET (RSBT, REST)подтягивающий к питанию резистор 10k, также можете добавить кнопку, соединяющую RESET и GND для ручного сброса модуляRTS (если на вашем USB-TTL не разведен пин RTS, то вам придется вручную перезагружать модуль )
CH_PD (CH_EN)подтягивающий к питанию резистор 10k
GPIO15 (MTDO)подтягивающий к земле резистор 10k
(для тех модулей, где выведен пин GPIO15)
GPIO2подтягивающий к питанию резистор 10k
(на схеме не показан, но рекомендуется для увеличения стабильности)
GPIO16для успешного выхода из режима Deep Sleep необходимо соединить пины ESP8266 GPIO16 и RESET через резистор 470 Ом (на схеме не показан)

Примечания.

1. Не на всех модулях выведены все пины. Перед приобретением модуля ознакомьтесь с видами модулей и их распиновкой.

2. Если на вашем USB-TTL конвертере выведены пины CTS и DSR — для автозагрузки прошивки они вам не помогут, т.к. работают только на вход.

3. Для стабильной работы ESP8266 требуется источник стабилизированного питания 3,3 вольт, ток более 250 миллиампер. Использование питания от USB-TTL конвертера может привести к нестабильности в работе.

Минимальное подключение ESP8266

Минимальное подключение ESP8266 (повышенная стабильность)

Более подробно, со всеми деталями, о подключении ESP8266 вы можете прочитать в нашей статье ESP8266 – подключение и обновление прошивки

Arduino IDE для ESP8266: быстрый старт

1. Подключить USB-TTL к USB

2. Подключить ESP8266 к USB-TTL как обычно. Если вы подключили ESP8266 по схеме без поддержки автозагрузки прошивки (не подключены DTR и RTS), то вручную соедините GPIO0 с землей, передерните питание модуля — все готово для  прошивки

3. Запускаем Arduino IDE

4. В меню ИнструментыПлатаGeneric ESP8266 board (в самом низу)

5. В меню Инструменты выбираем порт, к которому подключен наш USB-TTL

6. В меню Инструменты — выбираете частоту, размер флеш памяти вашего модуля

7. В меню Файл — Примеры (Образцы) — ESP8266WiFi — WiFiWebServer

8. В скетче заполняете SSID и пароль вашей WiFi сети

9. Жмем кнопку компиляции и загрузки скетча

10. Ждем окончании процесса прошивки. После прошивки, если модуль подключен по схеме без поддержки автопрошивки, отсоедините GPIO0 от земли и передерните питание модуля без отключения USB-TTL от питания

11. В меню Инструменты — Монитор последовательного порта

12. Выбираем скорость 115200

13. Смотрим что происходит в терминале

14. Когда модуль подключится к сети, то появятся надписи в мониторе «WiFi connected» и «Server started»

15. Ниже будет IP адрес вашего модуля ESP8266, например 192.168.1.248

16. Открываете любой браузер, в строке адреса вбиваете «http://192.168.1.248/gpio/1»

17. Смотрите монитор последовательно порта и если к ESP8266 к GPIO2 у вас подключен светодиод (через резистор, разумеется), то он включится.

18. Profit!

Автором этого проекта адаптации Arduino IDE для ESP8266 является наш соотечественник из Санкт-Петербурга Иван Грохотков.

Скачать Arduino IDE для ESP8266 с github

Скачать Arduino IDE для ESP8266 с build сервера

Скачать исходный код Arduino IDE для ESP8266

Задать вопросы автору проекта Ивану Грохоткову aka igrr или сообщить об ошибке в Arduino IDE для ESP8266 можно в специальном разделе на нашем форуме FAW Circle

GRC Security Now! Episode Archive

Since I discovered the Sonoff I’ve been thinking about embedding it inside a switch. I started looking for old power meters, timers,… I had at home but the Sonoff is a bit too long. Why didn’t they design a square board I event bought a bulky Kemo STG15 case with socket.

Next I decided to design my own board. It is meant to be the “official” hardware for the ESPurna project so it’s called ESPurna too. It’s opensource hardware and available at the ESPurna project repository at Bitbucket. I have some boards already for the first iteration (version 0.1). They are mostly OK but I’m already working on a revision.

But then ITead’s released their S20 Smart Socket. It’s the Sonoff in a wall socket enclosure. Almost 100% what I wanted. And at 11.70€ it’s hard to beat. There are other wifi smart sockets available, mainly Orvibo and BroadLink (an SP2 Centros should be arriving home anyday now) but ITead’s is cheaper and you can easily re-flash it. Just solder a 4 pins header, connect it to your FTDI programmer, hold the S20 button, connect the programmer to your computer and flash. Done.

OK, not so fast. Why would I do that Why would I change the stock firmware

The answer for me is a mixed up of philosophy and practicity. But you are right. Let’s go step by step.

Hardware

First let’s take a look at the device. The wall socket is nice looking and pretty small (at least compared to the STG15!!). In the socket you can read “16/250 ~” which I don’t know what it means since the relay inside is the same the Sonoff TH has and it’s rated at 10A and the label in the back says 2kW max, but maybe there will be a 16A version like the new Sonoff TH 16A. The ground terminals (connected from input to output) are not tightly fit and they make a metallic sound when you shake the device (OK, why should you shake it). The ON/OFF button symbol is upside down (ehem looks like the designer thought about it with the button over the plug, which makes perfect sense since most of the time the cable hangs down). But the overall feeling is really good.

To take a look inside the enclosure you have to remove a single screw on the back of the device, but there is a “tore invalid” label covering it (hey, blame Google translate), so don’t do it.

S20 front view, yes, the ON/OFF button icon is upside down…

S20 back with the “tore invalid” label

But if you do, this is what you will see:

A detail of the “upside down” button from the inside. It looks like a communication problem between the guy that was working on the enclosure and the guy that designed the button itself…

S20 guts. The ground clip has been removed. You can see the programming header: GND, RX, TX and VCC, everything a hacker needs (almost).

On the back of the board you can see the short live tracks, the ESP8266EX, SPI flash memory and the AMS1117-3V3.

The guts of the S20 are very much like those of the Sonoff albeit with a different layout. Connections to mains are in the upper side, that provides a better isolation between the safe part and the unsafe part, whilst on the Sonoff you have hot tracks running all along the board. Like in the Sonoff it has live lines duplicated on both sides of the board and an extra of tin on the bottom. There are air gaps between the mains lines and the low voltage side, but they had to leave a bridge, probably to provide mechanical strength to the board.

On the bottom of the board you have several components including the ESP8266EX, a Winbond 25Q80DVSIG 8Mbit SPI Flash memory and an ASM1117-3V3 that provides regulated 3.3 volts to the ESP8266 and the flash chips from the 5V output of the AC/DC power supply. Whilst 1Mbyte on flash ROM is enough for most applications, even with OTA functionality (check my ESPurna firmware) some might find it a bit too short. If that’s your case there are cheap and easy ways to upgrade the memory chip to a 4Mbytes one.

There is a button attached to GPIO0 and two LEDs, a green one connected to GPIO13 like in the Sonoff and a blue one to the GPIO12, like the relay, so whenever the relay is closed the LED will lit blue. Close by the blue LED there is an unpopulated header perfectly labelled with VCC, RX, TX and GND lines. That’s everything you need to flash the ESP8266 onboard custom firmware.

Software

ITead’s home automation products are managed through the eWeLink app for Android and iPhone. The goal of the app is to become a hub for different wifi home automation devices: switches, lamps, power strips, fans,… and the operation should be straight forward: set the device in pairing mode (AP mode), configure wifi credentials and control it.

I swear I have tried hard to use it. Several times. Even accepting weird permissions I would have not accepted to any other app (why should it ask for my phone number or my location). But I never ever managed to make it work. I have not been able to pass the pairing step. Not even after giving the app permissions over my personal life. Impossible. I quitted. If anyone has a clue on how to do it, please let me know. Permissions and connection problems are common between the comments on Android app market. No one has commented yet on iTunes. Weird.

This is the furthest I got

But even thou the app had worked fine I wouldn’t use it. I’m not saying you shouldn’t use it. My case might not be yours. Why would I flash my own firmware Basically to really own the device.

We are in the very early days of the IoT and we are not even sure of what it means. Companies are trying to capitalize the concept providing their users all-in-one solutions including the device, the app and the cloud (whatever that is). But why should anyone know when you set your livingroom lights in romantic mode And what happens if the company shuts off Greenwave by TCP or Revolv cases are well know. Google has a reputed history of closed services (not IoT related, true).

And what about interoperatibility You can easily end up having to use an app to switch your reading lamp and a different one for your ceiling light! Even those that provide open cloud solutions have weak days: Phillips recently released a trial balloon about locking out 3rd party hardware from Hue brigde. Elliot Williams at hackday put it simply: “The 900-pound gorilla in the corner of the Internet of Things (IoT) hype that everyone is trying to ignore is interoperability”.

That’s why i would always prefer open APIs and protocols over proprietary ones. I’m not even talking about open/free source software or hardware but protocols. You don’t own a device and the information it manages if you cannot talk to it directly, without middlemen.

The great thing about the Sonoff or the S20 Smart Socket is that you can easily flash your own firmware on them. So now I can control it with through my MQTT local broker, add schedules, behaviours,… through my local Node-RED instance or rely on 3rd party cloud services like Blynk or IFTTT if I want to, because if they ever shut off, it’s no big deal.

Conclusions

From the end-user point of view the device is a great deal: cheap, nice, wifi-enabled. But the mobile app is a disaster and I would expect people returning their devices because of this.

From the hacker point of view it’s a even greater deal. You can easily flash custom firmware and make it talk to your local services. It could have more flash memory. It could have more GPIOs exposed in the header to add sensors like a simple LDR to switch ON/OFF depending on the ambient light or a PIR to detect that someone’s near. Or maybe it could have a jack out like the new Sonoff TH 10A/16A.

I will recommend the S20 Smart Socket to anyone with the skills to customize it. For less than 12€ it’s an amazing device you can own.

S20 Smart Socket by Tinkerman is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License Microsoft Office 2012 incl CRACK

GitHub - oktaokta-signin-widget: Okta SignIn widget that .

Need for Speed Most Wanted is a racing game for android.

download last version of Need for Speed Most Wanted Apk Mod (a lot of money)   Data (Aderno,Mali,Tegra,PowerVr) for android from RevDl with direct link.

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Need for Speed Most Wanted

Need for Speed Most Wanted

Need for Speed Most Wanted

Need for Speed Most Wanted 1.3 The KMPlayer

112 Apk Mod (Unlimited All) Data for android was last modified: August 20th, 2018 by RevDl

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